By: Emily Bennett and Elizabeth Banquer

Instagram was first created on Oct. 6th 2010 by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger from San Francisco. Instagram is a social media platform where users create accounts to post and share photos, videos, and stories with friends. As personal as Instagram started out, several businesses and advertisements have taken a hold of Instagram creating a wide variety of accounts for users to follow (friends, celebrities, businesses, quote pages, fan pages, etc.). Since users easily interact with one another and generate the content, this social media platform is an example of Web2.0.

Initially, the creation of Instagram replaced the media method in which people shared photos by digitizing polaroid’s and photo albums. Additionally, Instagram allowed individuals to connect with others and stay up-to-date on current news and gossip. Instagram has taken off over the years adding new features and continuously updating their platform. Instagram was bought by Facebook in 2012 for a billion dollars.


Over the years Instagram has developed into a greater social media platform all across the world by consistently introducing new features. Instagram is now available in 25 languages and can be used worldwide. In addition, Instagram has moved from the original square photo with few filters to a variety of filters, custom cropping, videos, stories, live stories, geotag locations, tagging friends, direct message, and an explorer page.


In addition to these features, Instagram has now become a huge marketplace for businesses and companies to advertise their products and stores. Many companies sponsor famous accounts or create brand awareness through their own account. This replaces older forms of advertisements such as newspaper clippings and other print advertisements by creating a free and fast way to target new customers.

Privacy settings and restrictions on Instagram include allowing individuals to create private accounts so that users can monitor who exactly they allow to follow them. In addition to privacy settings, users can also turn off comments on posts and block other users.

Instagram is a social form of communication that allows users to communicate through pictures, videos, and captions. As the app progresses there have been numerous trends that have taken the public by storm. For instance several days of the week have their own nickname and a hashtag to go along: #mancrushmonday, #traveltuesday, #womancrushwednesday, #throwbackthursday, #flashbackfriday,  #saturdaysareforthe boys, and #selfiesunday. There is also the trend of “finstas” which are fake instagrams where users post things they would not normally post on their “rinstas” or real instagrams.

When instagram first hit the app store it instantly became a success. Its success branches from the fact that at that time it was so unlike any other app that the public were so intrigued by it that everyone wanted to download it. The growing population is the main force that played a role in the app’s early innovation.






Web 2.0: YouTube

By: Michelle Boca and Amy Clerkin


The history of YouTube began when PayPal employees Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim created a video-sharing website where users could upload, share and view content. Karim’s idea for what became YouTube came from two key events in 2004: Janet Jackson’s wardrobe malfunction at the Super Bowl, and the devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean. The Internet domain name ” ” was activated on Monday, February 14, 2005 at 9:13 p.m. Shortly after in May 2005, Youtube activated its beta site and in December 2005 Youtube officially launched out of its beta which allowed it to increase its bandwidth, improve its servers, and launch to the public. 


The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.

It wasn’t until April 2007, that Youtube started making money through advertisements. Finally, in 2009, Youtube began to get its “mainstream” recognition as the website was growing in popularity. The following year, in 2010, Youtube started renting movies in an attempt to compete with Netflix and Apple. And in 2011, you were able to stream live shows, concerts, and even the Olympics on the website.


With Youtube reaching such a broad audience it quickly rose to the top as a form of communication. It became the go-to place for presidential elections, music videos, and any other live content.

Youtube has evolved itself over the years, constantly changing its format and features to make it more accessible & desirable. It is a form of entertainment which can be considered as something that replaced the use of TV. The required reading defines web 2.0 as a reference to the transition of the “world wide web” to a new use and service development. “Web 2.0 is not a particular technology or product licensed or for sale, but rather a business model – a ‘way of architecting software and businesses’ into companies that seek to prosper on the basis of user-created content.” Youtube is considered an example of web 2.0 because it replaced former technology and has become an outlet to stream live events such as sporting games & red carpets and even allows you watch TV series or movies with new Youtube Red.

Talent Discovery

In recent years, YouTube has opened new doors for talent discovery. Never before has it been so easy for talented singers, dancers, actors and artists to achieve instant fame. Today, a person can upload a video of himself singing to YouTube and, if it gets seen by the right person, he could receive millions of views, get a record deal and begin a whole new life overnight.

Before YouTube, singers had to perform to small audiences in bar gigs and small performances, hoping that the right person would be there. YouTube offers an audience of millions. Of course, uploading a video to YouTube doesn’t guarantee your ticket to fame, but it does increase the chances of someone with real, genuine talent and originality getting discovered.

Jan 19, 2007


YouTube has given people around the globe a platform through which they can post videos to show the world, first-hand, what is going on in their countries; to show the world the reality of situations that may not be being broadcast on the news or may be hidden by the government; and to let people know about different issues that they may not have heard about and getting viewers to take action.


YouTube has also changed the face of entertainment. We used to watch television, go to the movies, read books. Today we can spend hours on YouTube, watching video after video. YouTube has shows, movies, home movies, animated shorts, web series and more and we can watch it all from home for free.


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YouTube is chock full of how to videos, tutorials and lectures. If you have a question or want to know how something is done all you have to do is search for it in YouTube and odds are there is an educational video waiting to teach you everything you need to know.

YouTube allows people from around the world to connect with other people from different countries. Most viewed video on YouTube is Gangnam Style by Psy with 2.8 billion views.

Celebrities and Social Media

by Alec Rudolph, Drew Pearson, and Paul DiPasqua

In Neil Alperstein’s essay, “The imaginary social world and use of media figures in advertising”, he points out that the knowledge of media figures is an important part of our everyday social interactions. He explains how effective media figures are in advertising due to the fact that they serve as role models to many and function as an outlet for positive and negative feelings to be vented. He also talks about the illusion of intimacy which is when the media figure addresses the audience directly to create a more personal connection with the viewer.

Our first celebrity is Seth Rogen. He is an American actor who stars and sometimes directs comedies. He is currently active on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram, though they serve different roles. He is not very active on Instagram or Facebook, as he has not posted on either since October 2016. He doesn’t mind interacting with other celebrities.

Me and Snoop at #HilarityForCharity. That was amazing

A post shared by Seth (@sethrogen) on

Seth is much more active on Twitter, often using his comedic popularity to his advantage by adding satirical twists to political news. He clearly has more liberal views, so during the election he often sided with Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders while bashing Donald Trump. He does not endorse any products but his own, such as his recent film Sausage Party in which he starred and directed, or more recently the AMC TV show Preacher, of which he is the executive producer.

Stephen A Smith is a very well known sports broadcaster and analyst. He is very active across Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter (he has over 3 million followers). Often times his radio station goes live on Facebook, where thousands of fans tune in to listen. He is also very interactive with his fans on twitter, often responding to hate and rebuttals from angry fans. Smith is known to be very over the top, especially concerning “THE WEEEDUH”.

Smith does not endorse any products or companies on social media except the one he works for, ESPN. He also often tweets about and retweets tweets involving the NBA, NFL, and NHL, but he is not so much endorsing those organizations as much as he is being a fan. He was in a commercial for Alberto Beef Jerky, but that is the only recent advertisement he has appeared in.

Kylie Jenner and Kevin Jonas

By: Samantha Schultz and Kate Mills

In the essay “The imaginary social world and use of media figures in advertising” by Neil Alperstein he talks about the different forms of advertising, and how different people embed themselves in the social media spotlight. There is a lot of skepticism regarding the use of media and how an individual portrays there image. Here we can take Alperstien’s conclusions and compare how Kevin Jonas and Kylie Jenner use the media.

Kevin Jonas is twenty-nine years old and currently married to Danielle Jonas with two girls Alena and Valentina. Kevin used to be a teenage sensation, he was on Disney channel and in a band called The Jonas Brothers with his two other brothers joe and nick. However, the band has split up, and Kevin happens to be the least famous out of the three brothers. Kevin uses social media like Instagram and snap chat to connect with fans and show off his beloved family. He doesn’t actually post about products and or sponsoring stuff through his Instagram.

Came home to this girl 8 months pregnant looking hotter than ever 🔥🔥

A post shared by Kevin Jonas (@kevinjonas) on

This is weird….

A post shared by Kevin Jonas (@kevinjonas) on

What is learned from Kevin Jonas’s use of social media is that even though he is famous, he is able to live a normal life, unlike Kylie. Kevin can go to the park with his kids or go to public places without being constantly harassed, yes some fans will always follow him or ask to take a picture, but he uses his social media to simply post pictures of his family. Kevin is very comedic on his snap chat by telling jokes and reminiscing about old times with his brothers.

Kylie Jenner

Kylie Jenner is related to the Kardashians, her parents are Chris and Catelyn Jenner, she is the youngest out of all the Kardashian-Jenner clan. Over the years Kylie has grown her fan base off of Instagram and snap chat. She currently has 90.6 million followers on Instagram at the age of nineteen. Kylie is the kind of person that endorse products and shows them on her Instagram. She shows her lip kits, puma, cars and, fashion.

Obsessed with my @fashionnova set 💜Get it at 😍 #ad

A post shared by Kylie (@kyliejenner) on

She is known for showing off her lavish lifestyle and the people that are in her life, especially on snap chat. It allows her fan base to feel personally connected to her. Kylie is known as the “snap chat queen” according to MTV. She has the most followers and views on snap chat, this is due to Kylie branding herself. She always promotes her latest products or upcoming projects on her snap chat. She keeps her fan base up to date on her every move and what she is doing or where her next destination is, which allows the fans to not miss out on what is to come.

What is learned from Kylie Jenner’s use of social media is that even though many people may envy her because she is set for life, she knows how to promote herself and her business. Kylie has a way of communicating with her fans that allow her to be very successful. It is all about getting your product or business out in public and, she knows how to do that. Her Instagram is full of new projects or the latest fashion trends that keep her followers intrigued. Kylie hardly ever connects with her fans over social media, but she does a lot of meets and greets when she has the time, when she opened her first Pop-up shop in California and NYC she was there to greet her fans and take pictures and chat for a little. The teenage sensation has a lot on her shoulders which ‘s hard since she is always in the spotlight there is a lot of controversy surrounding her. Basically, there has been a lot of controversy regarding her looks, a big controversy was her lip injections, she told her fan base and the rest of the world that she did nothing to them, which was a lie. Kylie then came clean, however many fans were disappointed and skeptical.

Social media enables all different types of relationships, through Instagram, snap chat, Facebook, Twitter fans are able to connect and keep up with the latest trends of their favorite celebrity. Many celebrities use social media for different purposes, but in the end, it is all of way of interacting and connecting with people all over the world.

Celebrity research

By: Maria Vazquez and Sydney Wall

In the essay “The imaginary social world and use of media figures in advertising” by Neil Alperstein he discusses how we as a society believe that we have relationships with media figures. This can help or hurt the media industries, for an example in the essay the company American Express used Jerry Seinfeld in the ad, and people who believed that they had some connection to  Jerry Seinfeld, got the American Express card because Seinfeld is a trustworthy type of guy. In another part of the essay, it states that some media figures are so prominent in our society that they how they act, and what they do can be the considered the cultural norm for our society.

Our first celebrity we researched was Trevor Noah, the host of “The Daily Show” on comedy central. He is a successful comedian from South Africa, who frequently uses Twitter and Instagram. Since he is the host of a Tv show he often uses the social media account for the tv show. his personal account has over 6.13 million followers on twitter and 1.4 million followers on Instagram. He likes to respond to some people who pose political questions. He also promotes “The Daily Show” on his social media outlets. He also promotes is upcoming stand-up comedy shows.



Chrissy Teigen is a prominent figure in social media culture. She is an American model and actress and is married to singer/songwriter, John Legend. She has 4.97 million followers on Twitter and 11.4 million followers on Instagram. chrissy_tiegen-620x412.jpg

She stays connected with her fans by interacting with them on Twitter and replying to their comments on Instagram. Chrissy Teigen is best known for her witty clapbacks on Twitter. She got received a lot of backlash and praise for her tweets to President Donald Trump. Chrissy-Teigen-Has-Perfect-Response-To-Donald-Trump-Evil-Tweet.png

Chrissy is also famous for being funny and sarcastic on social media. She often posts silly tweets or laid back Instagram posts. She is popular on social media sites because she has made it a point to be perceived as “one of us.” Forbes claimed that “she’s one of the most entertaining celebrities to follow on social.”  Multiple websites, including Cosmopolitan, Buzzfeed, and Hellomagazine, have posted articles praising Teigen’s social media presence. Chrissy Teigen is the queen of candid pictures and clapbacks, making her a social media guru. 13-10-2015-2-00-22-PM.jpg

Celebrity research

By Joey Martino and Jack Walzer

In “Imaginary Social Relationships,” Neil Alperstein discusses how many people develop fake relationships with celebrities. This could greatly help the brand, but also could hurt it in some ways. With famous people, there are always people who will gravitate towards them, but also those who don’t like them. Another risk you run with a celebrity is the chance of a scandal which could then directly affect your product. It is always running a risk of people not feeling comfortable with one of their favorite celebrities in an ad or the way they are portrayed in that ad. Alperstein is making the point that advertising with celebrities can help a lot but also their is a chance it comes back to hurt them.

Chance the Rapper

Chancelor Bennet, more commonly known as Chance the Rapper, is a prominent singer and song writer from Chicago. Aside from his music, Chance the Rapper is well known for not signing with a record label, making free music, and his philanthropy in Chicago. Chance uses social media to connect with fans while also promoting his music and his business. Chance’s website, ,is where he controls his business of selling concert tickets and merch. This website is Chance’s primary source of income because he doesn’t make any money off of his music. Chance often tweets about upcoming tours, new song realizes and his everyday thoughts. On Instagram, Chance allows us an inside look on his life by posting pictures of his moments with his daughter. Chance the Rapper is one of the biggest names in music right now and has to maintain his image on social media. Most artists have social media but Chance uses his in a way that hasn’t been done before. Chance the Rapper is changing the music business and uses social media as a tool to gain more support.

Remember who you are.

A post shared by Chance The Rapper (@chancetherapper) on

Kevin Hart & Drake

By: Emily Bennett and Elizabeth Banquer

In the essay The Imaginary Social World and use of Media Figures in Advertising, Neil Alperstein discusses how when we spend so much time with media, it’s natural for individuals to gravitate towards particular celebrities and create an illusion of intimacy. “First, they function as an emotional outlet providing a portal for both positive and negative feelings to be vented. Second, they function as role models that an individual may incorporate into his or her own make-up. Third, media figures may influence individuals to behave in certain ways.” Additionally the development of social media has allowed for more engagement in cultural icons and interactions.

Kevin Hart is a well known celebrity from television who is mostly active through his role in comedy. Hart, who has 95 million followers across major platforms, says social media “is extremely important, as I can engage with my fans on a regular basis. With a click of a button, I can talk with you and see what you like, what you don’t, and really engage.” Hart really does care for his fans and wants to reach out to them on a daily basis. This is why fans are so attached to him, he caters his comedy scripts towards a wide audience of individuals and is a genuinely funny guy.


Hart consistently says to reporters “I’m human and there’s no difference between me and my fans, apart from the fact I’m up there on that big screen,” he insists. “Other than that, I’m the same kind of person as you are, and I love to share because I think that information is key, and the more information I give, the more I can help and inspire others to want to build and achieve levels of success within the realm they’re in. At the end of the day, it’s about motivation and inspiration.” Hart additionally separates himself from other celebrities as his personality is essentially who he is. There is no character that Hart is playing, he is merely being himself and that is why fans can connect to him so easily. How he portrays himself on social media and television is who he is in real life; there is no disjunction.


Drake is a well known rapper, and a growing celebrity in the music and social media industries. He began his career with acting on the hit teen television drama Degrassi. Drake has a large following of fans across numerous platforms of social media. Drake or Drizzy for short has a mass media following of 34.7 million followers on twitter, 35.2 million followers on instagram, 7 million subscribers on youtube, and 35 million likes on facebook.


Champagne Papi uses his social media to communicate with fans about upcoming music, events, and things that are occurring in his personal life. Drake also has a history of getting into Twitter feuds with other rappers. After his fight with rapper Meek Mill the article “What Drake taught us about Social Media” Drake discussed his four rules of using social media as, “don’t sh*t on social media, timing is everything, content is king, and don’t be afraid to piggyback.”


Social media has given celebrities a new way to connect to fans all over the world in real time. Being able to create fan based relationships through platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat has allowed celebrities to essentially create a brand for their name and what they represent. Previously celebrities were unable to make such large connections and the intimacy between them and their fans lacked. Nowadays celebrity status has transformed with Web2.0 and created stronger invisible relationships.

Kylie Jenner and Selena Gomez

By: Michelle Boca and Amy Clerkin

In the essay “Imaginary Social Relationships”, Alperstein discusses how through the media it’s common for people to gravitate towards and develop fake relationships with celebrities. Social media allows celebrites to connect with their fans and develop relationships with them.

Kylie Jenner is commonly known for her family’s reality show, Keeping Up with the Kardashians. Since her start on the show she has gained a huge following and has even created a cosmetics and a clothing shop. Kylie is in the top ten of the most followed people on Instagram and is the most viewed person on Snapchat. Kylie uses her following to engage with her fans, keep them updated on her day to day life, and promote her brands. Kylie grew up in the spotlight on ‘Keeping Up with the Kardashians’ and because of that she has become accustom to sharing her life with her fans.

Over here at my POPUP making sure it's PERFECT 💋

A post shared by Kylie (@kyliejenner) on

Kylie uses Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and Facebook as a platform to engage with her fans as well as release new products. On her social media Kylie really shows how much she cares for her fans. She does this by posting live videos of her meeting them on her Snapchat story or posting pictures with them on Instagram or by ‘liking’ or ‘retweeting’ her fan’s posts. She also expresses her gratefulness for the large fan base that she has. Kylie does a lot of this by engaging with her fans who have purchased her merchandise.

This year is just the year of ..

A post shared by Kylie (@kyliejenner) on



Selena Gomez has 46.8M followers on Twitter

116M followers on IG

61.8M likes on Facebook


Before Beyonce’s post of her 2nd pregnancy, Selena held the record of most liked Instagram post of all time with a record-breaking 6.6M likes. Her post of a Coca-Cola ad features Gomez drinking from a bottle with one of her own song lyrics on it.

Selena also took to social media to tease a potential Wizards of Waverly Place reunion. She posted Snapchats with former co-star, David Henrie last night. The two discuss what their characters will be like in the future, saying “Justin’s got like 15 children, and Alex is single.”

Selena also uses social media as a means to update her fans on her well-being. She spreads positivity and always reassures her fans to love themselves and be the best they can be.

Selena is very grateful about her fans and will post posts thanking her fans for the support and love they give her.

My whole life. You matter most. Thank you for letting me do what I love every day.

A post shared by Selena Gomez (@selenagomez) on

Translating Advertising

by Alec Rudolph, Paul DiPasqua, and Drew Pearson

In the article Translation Advertising: Painting the Tip of an Iceberg, Marieke de Mooij writes that although global advertisement may have worked in the past, we are entering a new era of advertising in which there are factors that contribute to the effectiveness of an advertisement. These factors can all be traced back to a central idea: cultural values. Different cultures view the world in different ways. However, global advertising methods are being used because they are not only effective to the majority of viewers, but they are much cheaper. People who utilized these methods believe that, if done correctly, their ads could be “translated” by other cultures because they send a universal message of some sort that everyone could understand. However, some cultures may view attempted universal messages differently than others, so de Mooij writes that it is necessary for advertisers to incorporate culture-specific aspects to their ads to increase effectiveness. Cultural factors such as language, cultural symbols, and individualist/collectivist values are a few of these aspects. In this commercial, FedEx uses a prehistoric setting to get the message across. The idea is that educated people across the globe can understand what is occurring, since they presumably know about cavemen, dinosaurs, etc.


Translating Advertising

By: Samantha Schultz and Kate Mills

The three most important points/observation of the essay Translating Advertising Painting the Tip of an Iceberg are culture, language, and communication styles. Many cultures have different beliefs and values than other countries. When talking about a concept or idea in the United States, it might mean differently in Asia or Thailand. It is important that in creating an advertisement, the makers are aware of the values, beliefs, and norms of that country. In different cultures they have different schemas which can be developed through various advertisements, this brings different cultures together through media example youtube is a favorite source.
There are some concepts of advertising that people want to include, power distance, individualism, Masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. When making an advertisement, the makers have a target audience, and they try and figure out how to get their message across so that people want their products. Language plays a vital role in, and advertisement since English is a very known and spoken language, many commercials translate from English or include subtitles. The language structure is imperative in understanding a publication since the idea and concept of the ad has to make sense.
Another big part of advertising is communication styles. When creating an advertisement, the creators have to have visuals and concepts that make sense. Different communication styles go with each message; there are many different styles Verbal personal style, elegant verbal style, and exacting or precise style that advertisers use to create and advertisement that all cultures can understand. The visual is the most important part because even if you do not understand the language, the picture and communication style allows another culture to get the gist of the message.
This commercial is a McDonald’s commercial in Italy; you could use the same video, the ad would be okay for american views. Since McDonald’s is a well know company, and they have very distinct characteristic this commercial can use this commercial anywhere and anytime.